Day 01: Home - Chennai
Arrive at the Chennai airport. Our representative will assist you and briefly explain the itinerary. Later, he will also introduce you to the chauffeur, who will be with you for the rest of the tour and journey. Chennai also Known as the Capital of Tamil Nadu, Chennai was previously known as Madras. After check-in at the hotel, you will go for a local tour of Chennai in the afternoon. The trip will cover the National Art gallery, Vadapalani Andavar Temple, Burma bazaar, Vivekananda Ashram, Chennai Museum, Anna square, Kapaleeshwarar Temple, Snake Park and in the evening visit the famous Marina Beach. Later, you will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 02: Chennai - Tirupati - Chennai / (134 km, 3hour Drive)
Today after early breakfast gets ready for Venkateswara Temple (Tirupati Balaji Temple, the Pallava dynasty of Kanchipuram (9th century), the Chola dynasty of Thanjavur (10th century), and Vijayanagara pradhans (14th and 15th centuries) were committed devotees of Lord Venkateswara. The temple gained most of its current wealth and size under the Vijayanagara Empire, with the donation of diamonds and gold. In 1517, Vijayanagara Emperor Krishnadevaraya, on one of his many visits to the temple, donated gold and jewels, enables the Ananda Nilayam (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. After the decline of Vijayanagara Empire, leaders from states such as the Kingdom of Mysore and the Gadwal Samsthanam worshiped as pilgrims and gave ornaments and valuables to the temple. Maratha general Raghoji I Bhonsle (died 1755) visited the temple and set up a permanent administration for the conduct of worship in the temple.) same day trip after visit Tirupati temple visit local bazaar over there and come back Chennai. Overnight stay at the hotel in Chennai.
Day 03: Chennai - Mahabalipuram / (81km, 2hour Drive)
After having your breakfast at 8.00 am at hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for reaching Mahabalipuram. Counted among the best beach resorts, Mahabalipuram is 81 km away from Chennai. On arrival, check-in at the hotel and head for a local tour of Mahabalipuram in the afternoon. On this tour, you will see the Pancha Rathas named after the Pandava brothers of Mahabharata, Mahishasuramardini Cave, Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance, Krishna Mandapam, and the Shore Temple. In the evening, you will be free for your own leisure activity with night stay at hotel.
Day 04: Mahabalipuram - Pondicherry / (125km, 2 hour Drive)
In the morning after breakfast, you will take the drive to Pondicherry, which is also known as Pondicherry. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and rest of the day will be free to enjoy the weather of the beach town. After lunch enjoys the Promenade beach About 1.5 long, the Promenade beach is one of the main beaches in Pondicherry. The walk is characterized by various landmarks and statues including the statue of Joan of Arc, the Heritage town hall, Dupleix statue, the statue of Mahatma Gandhi, the old light house etc. if you need a calm and quaint place perfect for an evening stroll, this is a place you want to be at. The sea breeze and the sights and sounds work as a relaxing potion on your min. The beach is a recommended visit which is devoid of the hustle of the city streets. There is also a well established tourist center where you can get some extra information about the town of Pondicherry. Night stay will be at hotel.
Day 05: Pondicherry City Tour
After had your breakfast, you will proceed for a local tour of Pondicherry, where you will see the amazing Sri Varadaraja Perumal Temple, Auroville Matrimandir, Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Chunnambar Backwater, and the much loved and famous Pondicherry Beach. Pondicherry is a city, an urban agglomeration and a municipality in Pondicherry district in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. It is affectionately known as Pondy, and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry since 2006. Pondicherry is the regional capital and largest city in the territory. Overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 06: Pondicherry - Thanjavur / (178km, 4 hour Drive)
After having breakfast at hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for Thanjavur, which served as the Chola dynasty capital in the past. There are some odd 93 temples that one can see here. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Thanjavur. You will see the popular Brihadeeswarar Temple, Brihadeeswarar Fort, which is devoted to Lord Shiva. Later in the day, you will see the remarkable Thanjavur Palace, local museum, and Art Gallery. In the evening, you can head for shopping if it interests you. Night stay will be at hotel.
Day 07: Thanjavur - Trichy / (60km, 1 hour 20 m Drive)
After having your breakfast at the hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for Trichy. Also known as Tiruchirappalli, the city is on the banks of Kaveri River. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Trichy. The most famed and loved attraction of the city is the Rock Fort, which is an 83 meters high rock. Later, you will head to Srirangam, Jambukeswarar Temple, and Samayapuram Mariamman Temple. Rest of the day is free for you, Overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 08: Trichy - Madurai / (120km, 2 hour 20 m Drive)
After breakfast at hotel, you will drive to Madurai, which is among the oldest and most prominent places of South India. Also known as the temple town, this city has emerged as one of the industrial locations. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Madurai. The most important location here is Meenakshi Temple, which is among the most holy places in Hindu pilgrimage. Later, you will head to Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal, Alagar Koyil Temple, Gandhi Museum and much more. In the evening, you can visit town, and night stay will be at hotel.
Day 09: Madurai - Rameshwaram / (200km, 3 hour 40 m Drive)
In the morning after breakfast check-out from the hotel and get drive to Rameshwaram reached Rameshwaram and check-in at the hotel. Counted among the most frequented pilgrim centers, the place is an island, which is connected by bridges to the mainland. Rameshwaram was the place where Lord Ram from Ramayana came to offer prayers after killing Ravana. The best thing to see here is the 22 theerthas, which are around the main temple. Here, you will see the Sri Ramanathaswamy Temple and Dhanushkodi. Later, you will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 10: Rameshwaram / Kanyakumari / (325km, 5 hour 40 m Drive)
After having your breakfast at hotel, you will drive to Kanyakumari, which is the most southern trip of India. Here, there oceans- the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea meet, and you can see three colors of the water. Watching the Sunrise & Sunset is the main attraction here. On arrival, check-in at the hotel and later head for a local tour, where you can see the Devi Kanya Kumari Temple, Vivekananda Rock Memorial, Suchindrum, and Thiruvalluvar Statue. In the evening, you can watch the sunset and will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 11: Kanyakumari - Trivandrum fly back to Home / (100 kms 21/2 hrs drives)
In the morning after breakfast you will be free for your own activities and shopping after that check-out from the hotel and we will assist you in your transfer to the Trivandrum & visit Sri Ananta Padmanabha Swamy Temple at Trivandrum then airport for back to home with sweet memories with Guruji Travel of India.
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Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census (adjusted for the new limits of Chennai city), it is the fourth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked 43rd most visited city in the world for year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai has the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016. Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values.[ National Geographic ranked Chennai's food as second best in the world; it was the only Indian city to feature in the list. Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest city economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. In January 2015, it was ranked third in terms of per capita GDP. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Venkateswara Temple is a landmark Vaishnavite temple situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Temple is dedicated to Lord Sri Venkateswara, an incarnation of Vishnu, who is believed to have appeared here to save mankind from trials and troubles of Kali Yuga. Hence the place has also got the name Kaliyuga Vaikuntham and Lord here is referred to as Kaliyuga Prathyaksha Daivam. The temple is also known by other names like Tirumala Temple, Tirupati Temple, Tirupati Balaji Temple. Lord Venkateswara is known by many other names: Balaji, Govinda, and Srinivasa. The Tirumala Hills are part of Seshachalam Hills range. The hills are 853 metres (2,799 ft) above sea level. The Hills comprises seven peaks, representing the seven heads of Adisesha. The seven peaks are called Seshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrushabhadri, Narayanadri and Venkatadri. The temple lies on the seventh peak -Venkatadri, on the southern banks of Sri Swami Pushkarini, a holy water tank. Hence the temple is also referred to as "Temple of Seven Hills". Tirumala town covers about 10.33 sq mi (26.75 km2) in area. The Temple is constructed in Dravidian architecture and is believed to be constructed over a period of time starting from 300 AD. The Garbagriha (Sanctum Sanctorum) is called AnandaNilayam. The presiding deity, Venkateswara, is in standing posture and faces east in Garbha griha. The temple follows Vaikhanasa Agama tradition of worship. The temple is one of the eight Vishnu Swayambhu Kshetras and is listed as 106th and the last earthly Divya Desam. The Temple premises had two modern Queue complex buildings to organize the pilgrim rush, Tarigonda Venkamamba Annaprasadam complex for free meals to Pilgrims, hair tonsure buildings and a number of pilgrim lodging sites. It is the richest temple in the world in terms of donations received and wealth. The temple is visited by about 50,000 to 100,000 pilgrims daily (30 to 40 million people annually on average), while on special occasions and festivals, like the annual Brahmotsavam, the number of pilgrims shoots up to 500,000, making it the most-visited holy place in the world. It is around 435 km (270.3 mi) from Vijayawada, 571.9 km (355.4 mi) from Hyderabad, 138 km (85.7 mi) from Chennai, 291 km (180.8 mi) from Bangalore, and 781.2 km (485.4 mi) from Visakhapatnam There are several legends associated with the manifestation of the Lord in Tirumala. According to one legend, the temple has a murti (deity) of Lord Venkateswara, which it is believed shall remain here for the entire duration of the present Kali Yuga.
Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, around 60 km south of the city of Chennai. It is an ancient historic town and was a bustling seaport during the time of Periplus (1st century CE) and Ptolemy (140 CE), from where ancient Indian traders sailed to countries of South East Asia. By the 7th century it was a port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas. It has a group of sanctuaries carved out of rock in the 7th and 8th centuries: rathas (temples in the form of chariots), mandapas (cave sanctuaries), giant open-air rock reliefs such as the famous Descent of the Ganges, and the Shore Temple, with thousands of sculptures to the glory of Shiva. The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has an average elevation of 12 metres (39 feet). The modern town of Mahabalipuram was established by the British Raj in 1827.
Pondicherry is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry. The city of Pondicherry is situated in Puducherry district of the union territory. It is affectionately known as Pondy, and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil (New Town) since 2006. Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1-10 are located in north of the city. Wards 11-19 are located in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are located in the southwest of the downtown.
The history of the city of Pondicherry is recorded only after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese, British and French colonialists. By contrast, nearby places such as Arikamedu, Ariyankuppam, Kakayanthoppe, Villianur and Bahur, which were colonised by the French East India Company over a period of time and which later became the union territory of Pondicherry, which also has recorded history predating the colonial period. A marketplace named Poduke or Poduca is recorded as a Roman trading destination from the mid 1st century. The area was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram in the 4th century. The Cholas of Thanjavur held it from the 10th to 13th centuries, only to be replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century. The Vijayanagar Empire took control of almost all of the South of India in the 14th century and maintained control until 1638 when they were supplanted by the Sultan of Bijapur. The French East India Company established this town as their headquarters in 1674. Five trading posts were established along the south Indian coast between 1668 and 1674. The town was separated by a canal into the French Quarter and the Indian Quarter. During the Anglo-French wars (1742–1763), Puducherry changed hands frequently. On January 16, 1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War returned it. The British took control of the area again in 1793 at the Siege of Pondicherry amid the Wars of the French Revolution, and returned it to France in 1814. When the British gained control of the whole of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country. Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam, Karaikal and Chandernagar remained a part of French India until 1954 when it was incorporated into the Indian Union along with the rest of French India. On 18 October 1954 in a general election involving 178 people in Pondicherry Municipal and Commune Panchayat, 170 people were in favour of independence and eight people voted against. The de facto transfer of the French India territories form French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, and was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France and India was signed on 16 August 1962.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and had a population of 222,943 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city also has rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal Port, which is 94 km (58 mi) away from Thanjavur. Scholars believe the name Thanjavur is derived from Tanjan, a legendary demon in Hindu mythology. While the early history of Thanjavur remains unclear, the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire. After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and British Empire. It has been a part of independent India since 1947.
Tiruchirappalli, also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Located 322 kilometres (200 mi) south of Chennai and 379 kilometers (235 mi) north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. The Kaveri Delta begins 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the Kaveri river splits into two, forming the island of Srirangam, which is now incorporated into the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Occupying 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi), the city was home to 916,857 people in 2011. Tiruchirappalli's recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has also been ruled by the Pandyas, Pallavas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars (1746–1763) between the British and the French East India companies. The city is an important educational centre in the state of Tamil Nadu, and houses nationally recognised institutions such as the Indian Institute of Management (IIMT), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and National Institute of Technology (NITT). Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop and Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) have their factories in Tiruchirappalli. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom during the 19th century. A major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by an international airport which operates flights to Southeast Asia and the Middle East. After 1947, the town became a part of Independent India.
Madurai is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District. Madurai is the third largest city by population in Tamil Nadu, and is the 25th populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia. Madurai has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubbers, chemical and granite manufacturing industries. It has developed as a second-tier city for information technology (IT), and some software companies have opened offices in Madurai. Madurai has important government educational institutes like the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Madurai is the second corporation in Tamil Nadu next to Chennai Corporation. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2 and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court.
Rameswaram, (also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram) is a town and a second grade municipality in the Ramanathapuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on Pamban Island separated from mainland India by the Pamban channel and is about 40 kilometres from Mannar Island, Sri Lanka. It is situated in the Gulf of Mannar, at the very tip of the Indian peninsula. Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, is connected to mainland India by the Pamban Bridge. Rameswaram is the terminus of the railway line from Chennai and Madurai. Together with Varanasi, it is considered to be one of the holiest places in India to Hindus, and part of the Char Dham pilgrimage. It is said that this is the place from where the Hindu god Rama built a bridge across the sea to Lanka to rescue his wife Sita from her abductor Ravana. The Ramanathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, is located at the centre of the town and is closely associated with Rama. The temple, along with the town, is considered a holy pilgrimage site for both Shaivas and Vaishnavas. Rameswaram is the closest point from which to reach Sri Lanka from India, and geological evidence suggests that the Rama Sethu was a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka. The town has been in the news over the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project, Kachchatheevu, Sri Lankan Tamil refugees and capturing local fishermen for alleged cross-border activities by Sri Lankan Forces. Rameswaram is administered by a municipality established in 1994. The town covers an area of 53 km2 (20 sq mi) and had a population of 44,856 as of 2011. Tourism and fishery employ the majority of workforce in Rameswaram.
The history of Rameswaram is centred around the island being a transit point to reach Sri Lanka (Ceylon historically) and the presence of Ramanathaswamy Temple. Tevaram,the 7th–8th century Tamil compositions on Shiva by the three prominent Nayanars (Saivites) namely Appar, Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar. The Chola king Rajendra Chola I (1012 – 1040 CE) had a control of the town for a short period. The Jaffna kingdom (1215–1624 CE) had close connections with the island and claimed the title Setukavalan meaning custodians of the Rameswaram. Hinduism was their state religion and they made generous contribution to the temple. Setu was used in their coins as well as in inscriptions as marker of the dynasty. According to Firishta, Malik Kafur, the head general of Alauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi Sultanate, reached Rameswaram during his political campaign in spite of stiff resistance from the Pandyan princes in the early 14th century. He erected a mosque by name Alia al-Din Khaldji in honour of victory of Islam. During the early 15th century, the present day Ramanathapuram, Kamuthi and Rameswaram were included in the Pandya dynasty. In 1520 CE, the town came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire. The Sethupathis, the breakaway from Madurai Nayaks, ruled Ramanathapuram and contributed to the Ramanathaswamy temple. The most notable of them are the contributions of Muthu Kumara Ragunatha and Muthu Ramalinga Sethupathi, who transformed the temple to an architectural ensemble. The region was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century. In 1795 CE, Rameswaram came under the direct control of the British East India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. After 1947, the town became a part of Independent India.
Kanyakumari, also known as Kanniyakumari, formerly known as Cape Comorin, is a town in Kanyakumari District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The name comes from the Devi Kanya Kumari Temple in the region. It is the southernmost tip of peninsular India. Kanyakumari town is the southern tip of the Cardamom Hills, an extension of the Western Ghats range. The nearest town is Nagercoil, the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District, 22 km (14 mi) away. Kanyakumari has been a town since Sangam period and is a popular tourist destination.
Ptolemy's geography describes commercial relations between western India and Alexandria, the chief eastern emporium of the Roman Empire. He identified Kanyakumari along with the Gulf of Mannar as a center for pearl fishery. He also identifies Korkai (assumed to be the present day's Tuticorin), a place to the east of Kanyakumari, as an emporium of pearl trade. Another ancient Greek book, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, contains sailing directions for merchants from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, and even indicates that the coast from Braganza (Baroch) had a general southward direction down to and far beyond Cape Komari. Kanyakumari District consists of those parts known locally as Nanjil Nadu and Idai Nadu. The names of the villages of the district such as Azhagiapaandipuram, Bhoothapandy, Cholapuram and Kulasekaram reveal that these places were governed by several rulers at different periods of time. Nanjilnadu was under the rule of Pandiyas till the early 10th century and then under Cheras. The Kalkulam and Vilavancode taluks were under the rule of the Chera Dynasty. When the power of Chola declined due to the rise of Hoys alas and western Chalukyas, the Venad (Travancore) Chieftains (descendants of the central Chera family) took advantage of the situation and gradually established their hold on considerable areas in Nanjilnadu. Veera Kerala Varma, one such chieftain, styled himself as "Nanjil Kuravan". The annexation commenced by Veera Kerala Varma was to a large extent continued by his successors and completed by AD 1115. For about four centuries, the Venad was ruled by powerful kings who were consistently making incursions into the Pandian territories. As a result, Vijayanagar kings proceeded against Venad. In 1609 Kanyakumari fell into the hands of Viswanatha Nayak of Madurai. Consequent on this, there was no serious threat to Nanjilnadu until 1634. During the regime of Ravi Varma and Marthanda Varma, Venad was disturbed by the internal strife. Sanda Sahib of Arcot took advantage of this situation and attacked Nanjilnadu. Although Marthanda Varma was victorious in the battle of Colachel and defeated the Dutch armouries who helped the local feudatories, he could not cope with the threat from Sanda Sahib, which forced him to withdraw from the battlefield. After Marthanda Varma, Venad had weak rulers and as a result there was frequent interference by the British (who knew it as Cape Comorin) whose control was completely established over Venad and continued until 1947. From 1947 to 1956, it was under the personal rule of Maharaja of Travancore. During the period between 1956–1961, the administrative system has fallen in line with that of other districts in Tamil Nadu.
Thiruvananthapuram, known as Trivandrum, is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala. The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala's software exports. The Technopark, Trivandrum is the largest Information Technology park in Asia in terms of area. Trivandrum is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India. The city is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills. It is classified as a tier-2 city by the government of India. The world's richest temple Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located here.It was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Kozhiko in the 10th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1741 Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel. In 1745, he shifted the capital of Travancore from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu). The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha.The people who lives here is called as 'Trivians'. Thiruvananthapuram holds the most number of schools and colleges in the state often called as the educational hub of kerala.It is an academic and research focal point in the country with an array of premier institutions such as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, National Institute For Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Centre for Development Studies, Kerala Technical University, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Regional Cancer Centre, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, and the National Centre for Earth Science Studies. The city is home to venerable media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd. Trivandrum is also home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema and Kinfra Film and Video Park, which is one of the most advanced film and animation production facilities in India. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Deepwater Motherport. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. The city is ranked among the best cities to live in India.The City is also ranked as the best governed city in India.