Day 01: Home - Bangalore
Arrive at the Bangalore international airport our representative will assist you in getting transferred to your pre booked hotel & he will also introduce you to the chauffeur, who will be with you for the rest of the tour and journey. Check in at the hotel and get fresh. Rest of the day will be at ease and for leisure activities. In the evening if time permits get ready for an evening sightseeing of Bangalore. Come back to the hotel for night stay.
Day 02: Bangalore - City Tour
After breakfast in the morning proceed for a local tour of Bangalore, where you will visit to Lal Bagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore’s hottest attractions like Vidhan Sabha, a government edifice built in Neo Dravidian style, adorned with beautiful flowers; Tipu’s Palace, belonging to the popular ruler, Tipu Sultan, this palace reflects Mughal architecture at its best, and Bangalore Palace, built in Tudor style, this is a must visit attraction of Bangalore. With dusk setting upon, you get back to the hotel and stay overnight.
Day 03: Bangalore - Mysore / (150 KM 3 h drive)
After breakfast at 7.30 am, you will check-out from hotel and proceed to Mysore. On the way you will be visit to Srirangapatna, where you can see Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangapatna Fort, “Sangama” where three rivers meet and Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary. Then Continuous drive to Mysore, Mysore is a historical city with many attractions. On arrival, you will check-in at the hotel and head for a local tour of Mysore, where you can see the Mysore Palace Museum, Chamundi Hills, Mysore Zoo, Jaganmohan Palace, and St. Philomena’s Church. In the evening, you will be heading for a special musical light and sound show at the Brindavan Gardens. Later, comeback to hotel for night stay at the hotel.
Day 04: Mysore - Ooty / (130 KM 3 h drive)
After breakfast at the hotel, you will check-out from hotel and proceed to Ooty. Ooty have also Known as the queen of hill stations, this is a place of many interests. On the way to Ooty, you will have a check at the Mudumalai and Bandipur Forests. On arrival, you will check-in at the hotel and the rest of the evening is free for local shopping and then you can also head to Ooty Lake for boating. Later, you will head to hotel for night stay!
Day 05: Ooty - Coonoor - Ooty / (21 KM One Way 45 m drive)
After breakfast at hotel in the morning, you will head for a local tour of Ooty. On the trip, you will see many attractions of the hill station, such as Botanical garden, Doddabetta Peak, Children’s Park, Rose garden, and Thread Garden. In the afternoon, you will head to tour of Coonoor, which is 21 kms from Ooty. On arrival, you will see the tea gardens, Sim’s Park, Lamb’s Rock, and Ketti valley. In the evening you will be free for local activities and overnight stay at Ooty.
Day 06: Ooty - Kodaikanal / (250 KM 6 h drive)
After early breakfast at the hotel, you will head to Kodaikanal, which is often referred as the Princess of Hill stations. On your arrival, you will check-in at the hotel and rest of the day will be free for your leisure. You will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 07: Kodaikanal City Tour
After early breakfast at the hotel, you will take a drive for a full day local tour of Kodaikanal. Here, you will see a few of the attractions, including solar observatory, Bear Shola Falls, Berijam Lake, Kurinji Andavar Temple, Echo Point and Kodai Lake. Evening free for local market overnight at the hotel.
Day 08: Kodaikanal - Thekkedy / (160 KM 3 h 40 m drive)
Early morning, after breakfast at hotel, you will head for Thekkedy, which is one of the best known wild life sanctuaries in the country. On your arrival, you will check-in at the hotel and go for a complete cruise on the Periyar River. Later, you will go for a trip to the spice garden, and in the evening, there is a choice for a good Ayurvedic massage, something that the place is known for. Overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 09: Thekkady - Munnar / (98 KM 3 h 15 m drive)
Early morning, after breakfast, you will take the drive to Munnar. Known for being former resort capital of British Raj, Munnar is among the best hill stations you can come across, where you can see some of the best tea plantations. On your arrival, you will check-in at the hotel and rest of the day will be free to roam around. In the evening, you will go to down town for shopping, where you can get small souvenirs. Finally, overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 10: Munnar City Tour
After breakfast at hotel, the car will take you for a full day local tour of Munnar. Here, you will see the amazing range of tea plantations, Kuthumkal Waterfalls, Observatory Hills, Mattupetty Dam, and Rajamalai for checking wild Nilgiri Thars. Among the many interests is Evikulam National Park. Overnight stay will be at resort.
Day 11: Munnar - Kumarakom / (146 KM 3 h drive)
Morning after breakfast at resort, you will drive to Kumarakom, which is one of the most loved and frequented backwater destinations of Kerala. Later in the day, you can go and see the bird sanctuary, backwaters. Overnight stay will be at resort.
Day 12: Kumarakom - Alleppey / (34 KM 1 h drive)
After breakfast at the hotel, get driven to Alleppey. Reach Alleppey and check in at the pre booked House Boat check-in time will be 12:00 noon, and enjoy this beautiful experience for rest of the day and relax. Today you will enjoy house boat journey in Alleppey, all meals will be included in the houseboat. Overnight Stay in A/c Deluxe House Boat.
Day 13: Alleppey - Kovalam / (160 KM 3 h 30 m drive)
After breakfast at the houseboat, check out and get driven to Kovalam. On arrival check in at hotel and get fresh for few hours. Then in the afternoon, go for a sightseeing of Kovalam like Museum, Horse Palace, and Art Gallery. Evening you will be free at Kovalam Beach. Stay overnight at the hotel.
Day 14: Kovalam - Trivandrum - Kovalam / (20 KM one way 30 m drive)
Morning after breakfast, you will be proceeding for a local tour Kovalam and Trivandrum. On the trip here, you will see Vizhinjam Marine Aquarium, Lighthouse Beach, Analothbhave Mathe Church, Vizhinjam Village, and Chowara. In the afternoon, you will visit Trivandrum, where you can see the museum, palace, and the much acclaimed Anantha Padmanabha Swamy Temple. Overnight you will be staying at Kovalam.
Day 15: Kovalam - Kanyakumari / (88 KM 2 h 20 m drive)
After having your breakfast at hotel, you will drive to Kanyakumari, which is the most southern trip of India. Here, there oceans- the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea meet, and you can see three colors of the water. Watching the Sunrise & Sunset is the main attraction here. On arrival, check-in at the hotel and later head for a local tour, where you can see the Devi Kanya Kumari Temple, Vivekananda Rock Memorial, Suchindrum, and Thiruvalluvar Statue. In the evening, you can watch the Sunset and will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 16: Kanyakumari - Rameshwaram / (310 KM 4 h 50 m drive)
In the morning after breakfast check-out from the hotel and get drive to Rameshwaram reached Rameshwaram and check-in at the hotel. Counted among the most frequented pilgrim centers, the place is an island, which is connected by bridges to the mainland. Rameshwaram was the place where Lord Ram from Ramayana came to offer prayers after killing Ravana. The best thing to see here is the 22 theerthas, which are around the main temple. Here, you will see the Sri Ramanathaswamy Temple and Dhanushkodi. Later, you will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 17: Rameshwaram - Madurai / (170 KM 3 h 10 m drive)
After breakfast at hotel, you will drive to Madurai, which is among the oldest and most prominent places of South India. Also known as the temple town, this city has emerged as one of the industrial locations. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Madurai. The most important location here is Meenakshi Temple, which is among the most holy places in Hindu pilgrimage. Later, you will head to Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal, Alagar Koyil Temple, Gandhi Museum and much more. In the evening, you can visit town, and night stay will be at hotel.
Day 18: Madurai - Trichy / (132 KM 1 h 50 m Drive)
After having your breakfast at the hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for Trichy. Also known as Tiruchirappalli, the city is on the banks of Kaveri River. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Trichy. The most famed and loved attraction of the city is the Rock Fort, which is an 83 meters high rock. Later, you will head to Srirangam, Jambukeswarar Temple, and Samayapuram Mariamman Temple. Rest of the day is free for you, Overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 19: Trichy - Thanjavur / (60 KM 1 h 10 m Drive)
After having breakfast at hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for Thanjavur, which served as the Chola dynasty capital in the past. There are some odd 93 temples that one can see here. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and in the afternoon, you will head for a local tour of Thanjavur. You will see the popular Brihadeeswarar Temple, Brihadeeswarar Fort, which is devoted to Lord Shiva. Later in the day, you will see the remarkable Thanjavur Palace, local museum, and Art Gallery. In the evening, you can head for shopping if it interests you. Night stay will be at hotel.
Day 20: Thanjavur - Pondicherry / (167 KM 3 h 40 m Drive)
In the morning after breakfast, you will take the drive to Pondicherry, which is also known as Pondicherry. On arrival, check-in at the hotel, and rest of the day will be free to enjoy the weather of the beach town. After lunch enjoys the Promenade beach About 1.5 long, the Promenade beach is one of the main beaches in Pondicherry. The walk is characterized by various landmarks and statues including the statue of Joan of Arc, the Heritage town hall, Dupleix statue, the statue of Mahatma Gandhi, the old light house etc. if you need a calm and quaint place perfect for an evening stroll, this is a place you want to be at. The sea breeze and the sights and sounds work as a relaxing potion on your min. The beach is a recommended visit which is devoid of the hustle of the city streets. There is also a well established tourist center where you can get some extra information about the town of Pondicherry. Night stay will be at hotel.
Day 21: Pondicherry - City Tour
After had your breakfast, you will proceed for a local tour of Pondicherry, where you will see the amazing Sri Varadaraja Perumal Temple, Auroville Matrimandir, Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Chunnambar Backwater, and the much loved and famous Pondicherry Beach. Pondicherry is a city, an urban agglomeration and a municipality in Pondicherry district in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. It is affectionately known as Pondy, and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry since 2006. Pondicherry is the regional capital and largest city in the territory. Overnight stay at the hotel.
Day 22: Pondicherry - Mahabalipuram / (100 KM 1 h 45 m Drive)
After having your breakfast at 8.00 am at hotel, you will check-out from hotel and drive for reaching Mahabalipuram. Counted among the best beach resorts, Mahabalipuram is 81 km away from Chennai. On arrival, check-in at the hotel and head for a local tour of Mahabalipuram in the afternoon. On this tour, you will see the Pancha Rathas named after the Pandava brothers of Mahabharata, Mahishasuramardini Cave, Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance, Krishna Mandapam, and the Shore Temple. In the evening, you will be free for your own leisure activity with night stay at hotel.
Day 23: Mahabalipuram - Chennai / (100 KM 1 h 45 m Drive)
Early morning, after breakfast at hotel, you will drive to Chennai. Check-in at the hotel, and you will go for a local tour of Chennai in the afternoon. Chennai also Known as the Capital of Tamil Nadu, Chennai was previously known as Madras. After check-in at the hotel, you will go for a local tour of Chennai in the afternoon. The trip will cover the National Art gallery, Vadapalani Andavar Temple, Burma bazaar, Vivekananda Ashram, Chennai Museum, Anna square, Kapaleeshwarar Temple, Snake Park and in the evening visit the famous Marina Beach. Later, you will head to hotel for night stay.
Day 24: Chennai - fly back to Home
In the morning after breakfast you will be free for your own activities and shopping after that check-out from the hotel and we will assist you in your transfer to the Chennai airport for back to home with sweet memories with Guruji Travel of India.
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|City Name||Hotel Name||Hotel Type|
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Bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of about 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of about 8.52 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau. Its elevation is over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, the highest of India's major cities. A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoys alas, ruled the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kemp Gowda – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. In 1638, the Marathas conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty. It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengaluru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bangalore is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT capital of India") because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organizations ISRO, Infosys, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defense organizations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry.
Early And Medieval History
Discoveries of Stone Age artifacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli, Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE (Iron Age), burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilizations in 27 BCE. The region of modern-day Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and the tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to set up effective control over the region. According to Edgar Thurston there were twenty eight kings who ruled Gangavadi from the start of the Christian era till its conquest by the Cholas. These kings belonged to two distinct dynasties: the earlier line of the solar race which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race. The Western Gangas ruled the region initially as a sovereign power (350–550), and later as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas till the tenth century. The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga King Ereganga Nitimarga I and extended by his successor Nitimarga II. Around 1004, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, the Cholas defeated the Western Gangas under the command of the crown prince Rajendra Chola I, and captured Bangalore. During this period, the Bangalore region witnessed the migration of many groups — warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada speaking regions. The Chokkanathaswamy temple at Domlur, the Aigandapura complex near Hesaraghatta, Mukthi Natheshwara Temple at Binnamangala, Choleshwara Temple at Begur, Someshwara Temple at Madiwala, date from the Chola era. In 1117, the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas in the Battle of Talakad in south Karnataka, and extended its rule over the region. Vishnuvardhana expelled the Cholas from all parts of Mysore state. By the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a source of contention between two warring cousins, the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from the Hoysala held territory in Tamil Nadu. Veera Ballala III had appointed a civic head at Hudi (now within Bangalore Municipal Corporation limits), thus promoting the village to the status of a town. After Veera Ballala III's death in 1343, the next empire to rule the region was the Vijayanagara Empire, which itself saw the rise of four dynasties, the Sangamas (1336–1485), the Saluvas (1485–1491), the Tuluvas (1491–1565), and the Aravidu (1565–1646). During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty raised the Shivasamudra Dam across the Arkavati river at Hesaraghatta, whose reservoir is the present city's supply of regular piped water.
Foundation And Early Modern History
Bangalore Fort in 1860 showing fortifications and barracks. The fort was originally built by Kempe Gowda I as a mud fort in 1537.Modern Bangalore was begun in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who aligned with the Vijayanagara empire to campaign against Gangaraja (whom he defeated and expelled to Kanchi), and who built a mud-brick fort for the people at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempe Gowda was restricted by rules made by Achuta Deva Raya, who feared the potential power of Kempe Gowda and did not allow a formidable stone fort. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes". Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete" (Kannada pronunciation). The town had two main streets—Chikkapeté Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda I's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. During the Vijayanagara rule, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" or "Kalyānapuri" ("Auspicious City"). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 in the Battle of Talikota, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. Kempe Gowda declared independence, then in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by his second in command Shāhji Bhōnslé defeated Kempe Gowda III, and Bangalore was given to Shāhji as a jagir (feudal estate). In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under orders from Aurangzeb, defeated Ekoji I, son of Shāhji, and sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hyder Ali is credited with building the Delhi and Mysore gates at the northern and southern ends of the city in 1760. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan. Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore developed into a commercial and military centre of strategic importance. The Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tipu Sultan. Following Tipu's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore and was incorporated into the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. The old city ("pētē") developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore. The Residency of Mysore State was first established in Mysore City in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in 1804. It was abolished in 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British found Bangalore to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their cantonment to Bangalore from Seringapatam in 1809 near Halsur, about 6 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of the city. A town grew up around the cantonment, by absorbing several villages in the area. The new centre had its own municipal and administrative apparatus, though technically it was a British enclave within the territory of the Wodeyar Kings of the Princely State of Mysore. Two important developments which contributed to the rapid growth of the city include the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853 and a rail connection to Madras, in 1864.
Mysore, officially renamed as Mysuru, is the third most populous and the third largest city in the state of Karnataka, India. Located in the foothills of the Chamundi Hills about 146 km (91 mi) southwest of the state capital Bangalore, it is spread across an area of 128.42 km2 (50 sq mi). According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, the population is 887,446. Mysore City Corporation is responsible for the civic administration of the city, which is also the headquarters of the Mysore district and the Mysore division. Mysore served as the capital city of the Kingdom of Mysore for nearly six centuries, from 1399 until 1956. The Kingdom was ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty, with a brief period of interregnum in the 1860s and 70s when Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were in power. Patrons of art and culture, the Wodeyars contributed significantly to the cultural growth of the city and the state. The cultural ambiance and achievements of Mysore earned it the sobriquet Cultural Capital of Karnataka. Mysore is noted for its heritage structures and palaces, including the Mysore Palace, and for the festivities that take place during the Dasara festival when the city receives a large number of tourists from across the world. It lends its name to various forms arts and culture like Mysore Dasara, Mysore Painting; dishes like the sweet dish Mysore Pak, Mysore masala dosa; brands like Mysore Sandal Soap, Mysore Ink; styles and cosmetics like Mysore Peta (a traditional silk turban) and the Mysore Silk sarees, et cetera. Tourism is the major industry alongside the traditional industries. Mysore's inter-city public transportation solely includes rail and bus; flights, however, turn active during the peak time of the Dasara. Among many others to be first in, Mysore was the location of the first private radio station in India. Mysore University is headquartered in Mysore, which has produced several notable scientists, authors, politicians, actors, singers, and sportsmen. Cricket and lawn tennis are the most popular sports in the city.
The site where Mysore Palace now stands was occupied by a village named Puragere at the beginning of the 16th century The Mahishūru Fort was constructed in 1524 by Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513–1553), who passed on the dominion of Puragere to his son Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572–1576). Since the 16th century, the name of Mahishūru has commonly been used to denote the city. The Mysore Kingdom, governed by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire after the Battle of Talikota in 1565, the Mysore Kingdom gradually achieved independence, and by the time of King Narasaraja Wodeyar (1637) it had become a sovereign state. Seringapatam (modern-day Srirangapatna), near Mysore, was the capital of the kingdom from 1610. The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and, under Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu, to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan. The kingdom reached the height of its military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto rulers Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. The latter demolished parts of Mysore to remove legacies of the Wodeyar dynasty. During this time, Mysore kingdom came into conflict with the Marathas, the British and the Nizam of Golconda, leading to the four Anglo-Mysore wars, success in the first two of which was followed by defeat in the third and fourth. After Tipu Sultan's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799, the capital of the kingdom was moved back to Mysore from Seringapatam, and the kingdom was distributed by the British to their allies of the Fourth Mysore war. The landlocked interior of the previous Mysore Kingdom was turned into a princely state under the suzerainty of the British Crown. The former Wodeyar rulers were reinstated as puppet monarchs, now styled Maharajas. The British administration was assisted locally by Diwan (chief minister) Purnaiah. Purnaiah is credited with improving Mysore's public works. Mysore lost its status as the administrative centre of the kingdom in 1831, when the British commissioner moved the capital to Bangalore. It regained that status in 1881 and remained the capital of the Princely State of Mysore within the British Indian Empire until India became independent in 1947. The Mysore municipality was established in 1888 and the city was divided into eight wards. In 1897 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed nearly half of the population of the city. With the establishment of the City Improvement Trust Board (CITB) in 1903, Mysore became one of the first cities in Asia to undertake planned development of the city. Public demonstrations and meetings were held there during the Quit India movement and other phases of the Indian independence movement. After Indian Independence, Mysore city remained as part of the Mysore State, now known as Karnataka. Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, then king of Mysore, was allowed to retain his titles and was nominated as the Rajapramukh (appointed governor) of the state. He died in September 1974 and was cremated in Mysore city. Over the years, Mysore became well known as a centre for tourism; the city remained largely peaceful, except for occasional riots related to the Kaveri river water dispute. Among the events that took place in Mysore and made national headlines were a fire at a television studio that claimed 62 lives in 1989, and the sudden deaths of many animals at the Mysore Zoo.
Udagamandalam and abbreviated as Udhagai and Ooty is a town and municipality in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 80 km north of Coimbatore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district. It is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills. Originally occupied by the Toda, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century. The economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with the manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by the Nilgiri ghat roads and Nilgiri Mountain Railway. Its natural environment attracts tourists and it is a popular summer destination. As of 2011, the town had a population of 88,430.
Udagamandalam was originally a tribal land occupied by the Toda along with other hill tribes who coexisted through specialisation and trade. The major tribes of Nilgiris area are the Toda, Baduga, Kota, Irula and Kurumba The old Tamil work Silappadikaram states that the Chera king Senguttuvan, who ruled during the 2nd century CE, on his way to the Himalayas in the north, stayed in the Nilgiris and witnessed the dance of the Kannadigas. The Toda in the Nilgiris are first referenced in a record belonging to Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana and his general Punisa, dated 1117 CE. The Toda people were known for raising water buffalo. The Tamil and Badaga people known for farming activities. Nilgiris was ruled by various dynasties like Satavahanas, Cheras, Gangas, Kadambas, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Hoysalas, the Vijayanagara empire and the Rajas of Ummattur (on behalf of Wodeyars of Mysuru). Tipu Sultan captured Nilgiris in the eighteenth century and extended the border by constructing a hideout cave like structure. The Nilgiris came into possession of British East India Company as part of the ceded lands, held by Tipu Sultan, by the treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1799. In 1818, J. C. Whish and N. W. Kindersley, assistants to John Sullivan, then Collector of Coimbatore, visited Ooty and submitted a report to him. Sullivan camped at Dimbhatti, north of Kotagiri in January 1819 and was enthralled by the beauty of the place. He wrote to Thomas Munro, it resembles Switzerland, more than any country of Europe... the hills beautifully wooded and fine strong spring with running water in every valley." The Toda ceded that part of the town to Sullivan and in May 1819, he began to build his bungalow at Dimbhatti. He also started work on a road from Sirumugai to Dimbhatti that year. The road was completed in May 1823, and extended up to Coonoor by 1830-32. Ooty served as the summer capital of the Madras Presidency; it was visited by British officials during the colonial days as a popular summer resort. Soldiers were sent to nearby Wellington to recuperate. Wellington is the home of the Madras Regiment of the Indian Army. After Independence, it developed into a popular hill resort.
Coonoor is a Taluk and a municipality in the Nilgiris district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is known for its production of Nilgiri tea. Coonoor is located at an altitude of 1,850 m (6,070 ft) above sea level, and is the second largest hill station in the Nilgiri hills after Ooty. It is an ideal base for a number of trekking expeditions leading into the Nilgiris. The nearest airport is Coimbatore International Airport about 79 km from Coonoor town. As of 2011, the town had a population of 45,494.
Spread in an area of 12 ha, Sim's Park has a collection of over 1,000 plant species. The botanical garden is partly developed in the Japanese style and derived its name from J. D. Sim, the secretary of the Madras Club in 1874. The key attraction of the park is the annual fruit and vegetable show held in May. 57th annual fruit show is to be held on 23 and 24 May 2015. Dolphin's Nose Viewpoint is 10 km from Coonoor and provides a panoramic view of the vast expanse of the Nilgiri Hills and Catherine Falls. Tourists can trek from Lady Canning's Seat to Dolphin's Nose. Lamb’s Rock, about 5½ km from Coonoor is another vantage point. Droog Fort is located a distance of 13 km from Coonoor and was once used by Tipu Sultan in the 18th century. Law's Falls is a waterfalls located 5 km from Coonoor, on the way to Mettupalayam. Katary Falls has a power station. Pomological Station is a research center of the State Agricultural Department for persimmon, pomegranates, and apricot. Pasteur Institute located near Sim’s park, was started in 1907. This institute develops vaccination for rabies. The Government operates a Silk Farm, though this is largely a research facility. Recently, Floriculture and strawberry cultivation have taken root.
Kodaikanal is a city in the hills of the Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Its name in the Tamil language means "The Gift of the Forest". Kodaikanal is referred to as the "Princess of Hill stations" and has a long history as a retreat and popular tourist destination. Kodaikanal was established in 1845 as a refuge from the high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains. Much of the local economy is based on the hospitality industry serving tourism. As of 2011, the city had a population of 36,501.
The earliest residents of Kodaikanal were the Palaiyar tribal people. The earliest specific references to Kodaikanal and the Palani Hills are found in Tamil Sangam literature of the early Common Era. Modern Kodaikanal was established by American Christian missionaries and British bureaucrats in 1845, as a refuge from the high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains. In the 20th century a few elite Indians came to realise the value of this enchanting hill station and started relocating here. Tourism has been impacted by industrial pollution issues including the closure of a mercury factory owned by Unilever's Indian subsidiary Hindustan Unilever after evidence of widespread mercury pollution. To date no proper clean-up operation has been mounted. The issue gained prominence in early 2015 when "Kodaikanal Won't", rap music about mercury pollution in the region went viral globally getting more than a million views in 4 days.
Thekkady (Idukki district) is the location of the Periyar National Park, which is an important tourist attraction in the Kerala state of India. Thekkady is located about 257 km (160 mi) from Trivandrum, 114 km from Madurai City and Madurai Airport, 145 km from Cochin International Airport and 114 km from Kottayam railway station. Thekkady is located near to Kerala-Tamil Nadu border. The sanctuary is famous for its dense evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests and savanna grass lands. It is home to herds of elephants, sambar, tigers, gaur, lion-tailed macaques and Nilgiri langurs. The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary is spread across 777 km2 (300 sq mi), of which 360 km2 (140 sq mi) is thick evergreen forest. The wildlife sanctuary was declared a tiger reserve in 1978. The splendid artificial lake formed by the Mullaperiyar Dam across the Periyar River adds to the charm of the park. The greatest attractions of Periyar are the herds of wild elephants, deer and bison that come down to drink in the lake. The sanctuary can be accessed through a trekking, boating or jeep safari. Thekkady is considered as a heaven for natural spices such as black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, nutmace, ginger, and clove.
Munnar is a town and hill station located in the Idukki district of the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Munnar is situated at around 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above mean sea level, in the Western Ghats range of mountains. The panchayath of Munnar formed in 1961 January 24 is divided into 21 wards for administrative convenience. Coimbatore district lies in the north, Pallivasal in south, Devikulam and Marayoor in east and Mankulam, Kuttampuzha panchayaths in the west.
Kumarakom is a popular tourism destination located near the city of Kottayam (16 kilometres (10 mi)), in Kerala, India, famous for its backwater tourism. It is set in the backdrop of the Vembanad Lake, the largest lake in the state of Kerala. Kumarakom was within the jurisdiction of the king of Thekkumkur while that kingdom existed, and it was usual to have fighting and competitions among local kings. Small boats called chundan vallam and veppu vallam were widely used among the local kings for their lightning attacks and fighting in central Travancore. During those days Vembanad Lake was a dangerous area; therefore the king of Thekkumcore kept soldiers in Kumarakom and constructed a fort at the entrance of Kottathodu in Kumarakom. Soldiers were kept in certain areas of Kumarakom for protection against enemy attacks; some of those places still have "pada" (meaning war) in their names, such as Padakkalam and Padanilam. The remains of the fort's wall, six feet broad, can still be seen near the village office of Kumarakom.
Alappuzha , also known as Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India. Alappuzha is a city and a municipality in Kerala with an urban population of 174,164 and third among the districts having highest literacy rate in Kerala. In 2016, Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the top cleanest town in India followed by Mysuru & Panaji Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region and the lighthouse built on the coast of the city is the first of its kind along the Laccadive Sea coast (reference encyclopaedia of Kerala in Malayalam language). Alappuzha is situated 28 km from Changanssery, 46 km from Kottayam and 53 from Kochi and 155 kilometres (96 mi) north of Trivandrum. A town with picturesque canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, it was described as the one of the places known as the "Venice of the East" by Lord Curzon. Hence, it is known as the "Venetian Capital" of Kerala. Malayalam is the most spoken language. Alappuzha is an important tourist destination in India. The Backwaters of Alappuzha are the most popular tourist attraction in Kerala. A houseboat cruise in these backwaters can be booked. It connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Quilon to the South. Alappuzha is the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, on the second Saturday of August every year. This is the most competitive and popular of the boat races in India. The mullackal chirap is also one of the attractions of Allapuzha which is the festive season held for ten days every year in December. Other attractions in Alappuzha are Alappuzha Beach, offering a views of the Laccadive Sea, Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple, St. Andrew's Basilica, Arthunkal, Mannarasala Temple, Chettikulangara Devi Temple, Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple, Krishnapuram Palace, Thakazhy Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, Mullakkal Temple, Edathua Church, Alappuzha CSI Christ Church (oldest Anglican church in Central Kerala) and Champakulam Valia Palli. Alappuzha is home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the British and also the revolt against the Feudal raj. Communist Party members were killed by the army of the diwan, 200 people at Punnapra on 24 October and more than 150 at Vayalar on 27 October. The total loss of life is allegedly estimated to be more than a thousand. Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor.
Kovalam is a beach town by the Arabian Sea in Thiruvananthapuram city, Kerala, India, located around 16 km south of the city center. Kovalam first received attention when the Regent Maharani Sethu Lakshmi Bayi of Travancore constructed her beach resort, Halcyon Castle, here towards the end of the 1920s. Thereafter the place was brought to the public eye by her nephew the Maharaja of Travancore.The European guests of the then Travancore kingdom discovered the potentiality of Kovalam beach as a tourist destination in the 1930s. However, Kovalam shot into limelight in the early seventies with arrivals of the masses of hippies on their way to Ceylon in the Hippie Trail. This exodus started the transformation of a casual fishing village of Kerala into one of the most important tourist destinations in all India.
Kovalam has three beaches separated by rocky outcroppings in its 17 km coastline, the three together form the famous crescent of the Kovalam beach.
The southernmost beach, the Lighthouse Beach is the one most frequented by tourists, Lighthouse Beach got its name due to the old Vizhinjam Lighthouse located on a 35 meter high on top of the Kurumkal hillock. The lighthouse is built using stones, is colored in red and white bands and enjoys a height of 118 feet. It's intermittent beams at night render the beach with an unearthly charm.
Eve’s Beach, more commonly known as Hawa Beach, ranks second, in the early day, is a beehive of activities with fishermen setting out for sea. With a high rock promontory and a calm bay of blue waters, this beach paradise creates a unique aquarelle on moonlit nights.
A large promontory separates this part from the southern side. Samudra Beach doesn't have tourists thronging there or hectic business. The local fishermen ply their trade on this part. Detour past Kovalam junction to land on Samudra Beach which is to the north of Ashoka Beach. One has the option to walk along the sea-wall too.The sight of the waves lashing on the rocks below is awesome.
Shallow waters stretching for hundreds of metres are ideal for swimming. The beaches have steep palm covered headlands and are lined with shops that offer all kinds of goods and services.
The larger of the beaches is called Lighthouse Beach for its 35 metre high light house which towers over it atop Kurumkal hillock. The second largest one is Hawah Beach named thus for the topless European women who used to throng there. It was the first topless beach in India. However topless bathing is banned now except in private coves owned by resorts. Visitors frequent these two beaches. The northern part of the beach is known as Samudra Beach in tourism parlance. A large promontory separates this part from the southern side. Samudra Beach doesn't have tourists thronging there or hectic business. The local fishermen ply their trade on this part. The sands on the beaches in Kovalam are partially black in colour due to the presence of ilmenite and Monazite. The normal tourist season is from September to May. Ashoka beach is also the part of Kovalam beach.
Thiruvananthapuram, known as Trivandrum, is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala. The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala's software exports. The Technopark, Trivandrum is the largest Information Technology park in Asia in terms of area. Trivandrum is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India. The city is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills. It is classified as a tier-2 city by the government of India. The world's richest temple Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located here.It was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Kozhiko in the 10th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1741 Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel. In 1745, he shifted the capital of Travancore from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu). The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha.The people who lives here is called as 'Trivians'. Thiruvananthapuram holds the most number of schools and colleges in the state often called as the educational hub of kerala.It is an academic and research focal point in the country with an array of premier institutions such as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, National Institute For Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Centre for Development Studies, Kerala Technical University, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Regional Cancer Centre, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, and the National Centre for Earth Science Studies. The city is home to venerable media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd. Trivandrum is also home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema and Kinfra Film and Video Park, which is one of the most advanced film and animation production facilities in India. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Deepwater Motherport. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. The city is ranked among the best cities to live in India.The City is also ranked as the best governed city in India.
Kanyakumari, also known as Kanniyakumari, formerly known as Cape Comorin, is a town in Kanyakumari District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The name comes from the Devi Kanya Kumari Temple in the region. It is the southernmost tip of peninsular India. Kanyakumari town is the southern tip of the Cardamom Hills, an extension of the Western Ghats range. The nearest town is Nagercoil, the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District, 22 km (14 mi) away. Kanyakumari has been a town since Sangam period and is a popular tourist destination.
Ptolemy's geography describes commercial relations between western India and Alexandria, the chief eastern emporium of the Roman Empire. He identified Kanyakumari along with the Gulf of Mannar as a center for pearl fishery. He also identifies Korkai (assumed to be the present day's Tuticorin), a place to the east of Kanyakumari, as an emporium of pearl trade. Another ancient Greek book, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, contains sailing directions for merchants from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, and even indicates that the coast from Braganza (Baroch) had a general southward direction down to and far beyond Cape Komari. Kanyakumari District consists of those parts known locally as Nanjil Nadu and Idai Nadu. The names of the villages of the district such as Azhagiapaandipuram, Bhoothapandy, Cholapuram and Kulasekaram reveal that these places were governed by several rulers at different periods of time. Nanjilnadu was under the rule of Pandiyas till the early 10th century and then under Cheras. The Kalkulam and Vilavancode taluks were under the rule of the Chera Dynasty. When the power of Chola declined due to the rise of Hoys alas and western Chalukyas, the Venad (Travancore) Chieftains (descendants of the central Chera family) took advantage of the situation and gradually established their hold on considerable areas in Nanjilnadu. Veera Kerala Varma, one such chieftain, styled himself as "Nanjil Kuravan". The annexation commenced by Veera Kerala Varma was to a large extent continued by his successors and completed by AD 1115. For about four centuries, the Venad was ruled by powerful kings who were consistently making incursions into the Pandian territories. As a result, Vijayanagar kings proceeded against Venad. In 1609 Kanyakumari fell into the hands of Viswanatha Nayak of Madurai. Consequent on this, there was no serious threat to Nanjilnadu until 1634. During the regime of Ravi Varma and Marthanda Varma, Venad was disturbed by the internal strife. Sanda Sahib of Arcot took advantage of this situation and attacked Nanjilnadu. Although Marthanda Varma was victorious in the battle of Colachel and defeated the Dutch armouries who helped the local feudatories, he could not cope with the threat from Sanda Sahib, which forced him to withdraw from the battlefield. After Marthanda Varma, Venad had weak rulers and as a result there was frequent interference by the British (who knew it as Cape Comorin) whose control was completely established over Venad and continued until 1947. From 1947 to 1956, it was under the personal rule of Maharaja of Travancore. During the period between 1956–1961, the administrative system has fallen in line with that of other districts in Tamil Nadu.
Rameswaram, (also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram) is a town and a second grade municipality in the Ramanathapuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on Pamban Island separated from mainland India by the Pamban channel and is about 40 kilometres from Mannar Island, Sri Lanka. It is situated in the Gulf of Mannar, at the very tip of the Indian peninsula. Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, is connected to mainland India by the Pamban Bridge. Rameswaram is the terminus of the railway line from Chennai and Madurai. Together with Varanasi, it is considered to be one of the holiest places in India to Hindus, and part of the Char Dham pilgrimage. It is said that this is the place from where the Hindu god Rama built a bridge across the sea to Lanka to rescue his wife Sita from her abductor Ravana. The Ramanathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, is located at the centre of the town and is closely associated with Rama. The temple, along with the town, is considered a holy pilgrimage site for both Shaivas and Vaishnavas. Rameswaram is the closest point from which to reach Sri Lanka from India, and geological evidence suggests that the Rama Sethu was a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka. The town has been in the news over the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project, Kachchatheevu, Sri Lankan Tamil refugees and capturing local fishermen for alleged cross-border activities by Sri Lankan Forces. Rameswaram is administered by a municipality established in 1994. The town covers an area of 53 km2 (20 sq mi) and had a population of 44,856 as of 2011. Tourism and fishery employ the majority of workforce in Rameswaram.
The history of Rameswaram is centred around the island being a transit point to reach Sri Lanka (Ceylon historically) and the presence of Ramanathaswamy Temple. Tevaram,the 7th–8th century Tamil compositions on Shiva by the three prominent Nayanars (Saivites) namely Appar, Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar. The Chola king Rajendra Chola I (1012 – 1040 CE) had a control of the town for a short period. The Jaffna kingdom (1215–1624 CE) had close connections with the island and claimed the title Setukavalan meaning custodians of the Rameswaram. Hinduism was their state religion and they made generous contribution to the temple. Setu was used in their coins as well as in inscriptions as marker of the dynasty. According to Firishta, Malik Kafur, the head general of Alauddin Khilji, the ruler of Delhi Sultanate, reached Rameswaram during his political campaign in spite of stiff resistance from the Pandyan princes in the early 14th century. He erected a mosque by name Alia al-Din Khaldji in honour of victory of Islam. During the early 15th century, the present day Ramanathapuram, Kamuthi and Rameswaram were included in the Pandya dynasty. In 1520 CE, the town came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire. The Sethupathis, the breakaway from Madurai Nayaks, ruled Ramanathapuram and contributed to the Ramanathaswamy temple. The most notable of them are the contributions of Muthu Kumara Ragunatha and Muthu Ramalinga Sethupathi, who transformed the temple to an architectural ensemble. The region was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century. In 1795 CE, Rameswaram came under the direct control of the British East India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. After 1947, the town became a part of Independent India.
Madurai is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District. Madurai is the third largest city by population in Tamil Nadu, and is the 25th populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia. Madurai has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubbers, chemical and granite manufacturing industries. It has developed as a second-tier city for information technology (IT), and some software companies have opened offices in Madurai. Madurai has important government educational institutes like the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Madurai is the second corporation in Tamil Nadu next to Chennai Corporation. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2 and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court.
Tiruchirappalli, also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Located 322 kilometres (200 mi) south of Chennai and 379 kilometers (235 mi) north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. The Kaveri Delta begins 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the Kaveri river splits into two, forming the island of Srirangam, which is now incorporated into the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Occupying 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi), the city was home to 916,857 people in 2011. Tiruchirappalli's recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has also been ruled by the Pandyas, Pallavas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars (1746–1763) between the British and the French East India companies. The city is an important educational centre in the state of Tamil Nadu, and houses nationally recognised institutions such as the Indian Institute of Management (IIMT), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and National Institute of Technology (NITT). Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop and Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) have their factories in Tiruchirappalli. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom during the 19th century. A major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by an international airport which operates flights to Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and had a population of 222,943 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city also has rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal Port, which is 94 km (58 mi) away from Thanjavur. Scholars believe the name Thanjavur is derived from Tanjan, a legendary demon in Hindu mythology. While the early history of Thanjavur remains unclear, the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire. After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and British Empire. It has been a part of independent India since 1947.
Pondicherry is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry. The city of Pondicherry is situated in Puducherry district of the union territory. It is affectionately known as Pondy, and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil (New Town) since 2006. Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1-10 are located in north of the city. Wards 11-19 are located in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are located in the southwest of the downtown.
The history of the city of Pondicherry is recorded only after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese, British and French colonialists. By contrast, nearby places such as Arikamedu, Ariyankuppam, Kakayanthoppe, Villianur and Bahur, which were colonised by the French East India Company over a period of time and which later became the union territory of Pondicherry, which also has recorded history predating the colonial period. A marketplace named Poduke or Poduca is recorded as a Roman trading destination from the mid 1st century. The area was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram in the 4th century. The Cholas of Thanjavur held it from the 10th to 13th centuries, only to be replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century. The Vijayanagar Empire took control of almost all of the South of India in the 14th century and maintained control until 1638 when they were supplanted by the Sultan of Bijapur. The French East India Company established this town as their headquarters in 1674. Five trading posts were established along the south Indian coast between 1668 and 1674. The town was separated by a canal into the French Quarter and the Indian Quarter. During the Anglo-French wars (1742–1763), Puducherry changed hands frequently. On January 16, 1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War returned it. The British took control of the area again in 1793 at the Siege of Pondicherry amid the Wars of the French Revolution, and returned it to France in 1814. When the British gained control of the whole of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country. Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam, Karaikal and Chandernagar remained a part of French India until 1954 when it was incorporated into the Indian Union along with the rest of French India. On 18 October 1954 in a general election involving 178 people in Pondicherry Municipal and Commune Panchayat, 170 people were in favour of independence and eight people voted against. The de facto transfer of the French India territories form French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, and was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France and India was signed on 16 August 1962.
Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, around 60 km south of the city of Chennai. It is an ancient historic town and was a bustling seaport during the time of Periplus (1st century CE) and Ptolemy (140 CE), from where ancient Indian traders sailed to countries of South East Asia. By the 7th century it was a port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas. It has a group of sanctuaries carved out of rock in the 7th and 8th centuries: rathas (temples in the form of chariots), mandapas (cave sanctuaries), giant open-air rock reliefs such as the famous Descent of the Ganges, and the Shore Temple, with thousands of sculptures to the glory of Shiva. The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has an average elevation of 12 metres (39 feet). The modern town of Mahabalipuram was established by the British Raj in 1827.
Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census (adjusted for the new limits of Chennai city), it is the fourth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked 43rd most visited city in the world for year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai has the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016. Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values.[ National Geographic ranked Chennai's food as second best in the world; it was the only Indian city to feature in the list. Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest city economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. In January 2015, it was ranked third in terms of per capita GDP. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.